LINK TO RESEARCH
Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michael L Christensen 1 ,
Sahar M Rashed,
Patricia A Cowan,
George A Burghen
The epidemic increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)
in children and adolescents is presenting enormous challenges to the
medical profession. The combination of factors such as obesity, ethnicity,
puberty, and genetic predisposition has contributed to the development of
T2DM in younger ages. These factors affect the regulatory mechanism of
insulin secretion, insulin action, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. In contrast
to adults, children appear to have a shorter latency to disease, a more
rapid development of symptoms, and an increased ketoacidosis. There are
limited therapeutic options to prevent or manage T2DM in children. Although
the role of diet and exercise (lifestyle intervention) has not been
adequately evaluated in children, they will remain important adjuncts in
the prevention and treatment of T2DM. Insulin and metformin are currently
the only approved medications for the treatment of T2DM in children.
Clinical trials involving other oral agents used in adults are currently
being conducted to evaluate their safety and efficacy in children.
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